Could Dark Energy be Another Dimension of Time?

The idea has been proposed in a science-fiction book Anomaly (The Soul Prophecies) by Caitlin Lynagh.anomaly cover sm

The book follows a business student (and keen science enthusiast) as he finds his path in life following the death of his childhood sweetheart. The book discusses the afterlife through science – but in a way that probes genuine scientific questions rather than pseudo-science – with no mention of God. Anomaly examines connectivity, chaos theory and quantum mechanics by intelligent, yet easy to understand means.

I approached Lynagh through her WordPress site. She has a science degree, though not in physics, but has thoroughly researched and understood her approach to the science in her book.

The ideas in her research notes stem from a thought experiment.  If you were to eat a chocolate bar of 200kcal you would have to run for 20 minutes to burn off the calories at 10 per minute – or work twice as hard for half the time (10 minutes burning 20kcal per minute). Eventually, you would need to do infinite work to burn off the calories instantaneously.


This energy needs to go somewhere and at this point both axis become time dependent (effectively E = 0t). As a result this energy takes on the properties of zero but obviously it can’t be zero because something is there. This is where the idea of a second dimension of time and space come into it. Effectively time absorbs this energy.

Lynagh proposes a separate time line to human time which runs with the cosmological constant in General Relativity. She calls it Nowtime in her book. Nowtime contains all events past and present plus all possibilities that can happen in a single moment Planck-time after. Time, at this infinitesimally small moment, behaves like light.

And if Nowtime has energy: E = 0t as a result in the equation above, and we already know E =MC2, this dimension must also have mass. Lynagh suggests this is another dimension of space. In Anomaly, Lynagh has an interesting way of visualising it. This information is what Lynagh calls a creative field.

Lynagh suggests Nowtime moves in pulses, like frames of a video, in Planck-time along the arrow of human time. Nowtime holds all cosmological information (and in her book, by default conscious thought – including imaginary – since everything is made up of fundamental particles).

You can visualise this as a vortex with human time running through the centre and this Nowtime spiralling like a coil in the forward direction of human time expanding as information/entropy gains. Each loop moves at a Planck length along human time. There is energy in this. If you were to slice this time at any point you would see a circle with a dot in the middle. The dot would be human time, the circle would be Nowtime and all the space in the middle would be the creative field which contains all information.


As strange as this seems, it does make sense – as Carl Sagan once said, If you wish to make an apple pie from scratch, you must first invent the universe. The present is made up of all of the events in the past. Any change in that, however small would change the present. Our reality happens when the past collapses, leaving the present, and the future is based on the present. All quantum events are essential to the cosmological conditions of the present. Lynagh describes these connections as a gravitational consequence of events.

Lynagh understands that these connections must have a measurable force and her protagonists in Anomaly are set to seek experiments to prove it.

Lynagh is writing more books in the series and working on the maths, which may include redefining the cosmological constant because her hypothesis can explain dark energy and may simplify string theory. The book also hints at experiments that can test her hypothesis as the scientists in the book discover a new particle with strange behaviour. Lynagh doesn’t go into detail in Anomaly but plans to with subsequent books.

The ideas in Anomaly have excited my curiosity as I could see how the idea obeys the laws of thermal dynamics and positive/negative pressure on the cosmological system. If proved this could also explain the expanding universe, dark matter and the provide answers to the inception of the universe and conditions before the Big Bang. I’ve edited this down from the research I was sent, there is much more to it, including how the ATLAS experiments at the LHC might lend to her ideas.

There is a Facebook page devoted to the science in Anomaly called Anomaly Science.

Images courtesy of Caitlin Lynagh. Featured image via Pixabay.


Physicists just found a link between dark energy and the arrow of time

I am in the middle of writing  long piece about this. The following article is courtesy of Science Alert

For years, physicists have attempted to explain dark energy – a mysterious influence that pushes space apart faster than gravity can pull the things in it together. But physics isn’t always about figuring out what things are. A lot of it is figuring out what things cause.

And in a recent paper, a group of physicists asked this very question about dark energy, and found that in some cases, it might cause time to go forward.

When you throw a ball into the air, it starts with some initial speed-up, but then it slows as Earth’s gravity pulls it down. If you throw it fast enough (about 11 km per second, for those who want to try), it’ll never slow down enough to turn around and start falling back towards you, but it’ll still move more slowly as it moves away from you, because of Earth’s gravity.

Physicists and astronomers in the 1990s expected something similar to have occured after the big bang – an event that threw matter out in all directions. The collective gravity from all that matter should have slowed it all down, just like the Earth slows down the ball. But that’s not what they found.

Instead, everything seems to have sped up. There’s something pervading the Universe that physically spreads space apart faster than gravity can pull things together. The effect is small – it’s only noticeable when you look at far-away galaxies – but it’s there. It’s become known as dark energy – “dark”, because no one knows what it is.

Science is nothing if not the process of humans looking for things they can’t explain, so this isn’t the first time the Universe has stumped us. For centuries, one of those stumpers has been time itself: Why does time have an arrow pointing from the past to the present to the future?

It might seem like a silly question – I mean, if time didn’t go forward, then effects would precede causes, and that seems like it should be impossible – but it’s less of one than you might think.

The Universe, as far as we can tell, only operates according to laws of physics. And just about all of the laws of physics that we know are completely time-reversible, meaning that the things they cause look exactly the same whether time runs forward or backward.



 Featured image courtesy of  Paul Fleet/

Blue “Little Lion” Galaxy Could Reveal the Conditions at the Start of the Big Bang

Original article via The Science Explorer

Blue “Little Lion” Galaxy Could Reveal the Conditions at the Start of the Big Bang | The Science Explorer


It is the most metal-poor galaxy ever discovered.

About 30 million light-years from Earth lies a unique, faint blue galaxy located in the constellation Leo Minor. Why is it to special? It could shed new light on the conditions at the birth of the universe.

The galaxy Leoncino, or “little lion,” contains the lowest level of heavy chemical elements, or “metals,” ever observed in a system of stars. In astronomy, any element other than hydrogen or helium is referred to as a metal, and metal-poor galaxies closely resemble the early universe.

“Finding the most metal-poor galaxy ever is exciting since it could help contribute to a quantitative test of the Big Bang,” said co-author John J. Salzer, professor at IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Astronomy, in an IU news release. “There are relatively few ways to explore conditions at the birth of the universe, but low-metal galaxies are among the most promising.”


Photo credit: NASA; A. Hirschauer & J. Salzer, Indiana University; J. Cannon, Macalester College; and K. McQuinn, University of Texas. Image has been cropped

Physicists just discovered a totally new form of light

Original article from SCIENCE ALERT

Physicists just discovered a totally new form of light – ScienceAlert<img src=”” style=”display:none” height=”1″ width=”1″ alt=””/><img height=”1″ width=”1″ alt=”” style=”display:none” src=””/>

Physicists have just discovered a new form of light that doesn’t follow our existing rules of angular momentum, and it could shake up our understanding of the electromagnetic radiation and lead to faster, more secure optical communication.

Because of how well-studied and, well, everywhere, light is, you might assume that we’ve pretty much learnt all there is to know about it. But just last year, researchers identified a fundamental new property of light, and now a team of Irish scientists has shown that light can take on unexpected new forms.

One of the ways we measure a beam of light is through its angular momentum – a constant quantity that measures how much light is rotating. And until now, it was thought that for all forms of light, the angular momentum would be a whole number (known as an integer) multiple of Planck’s constant – a physical constant that sets the scale of quantum effects.

But researchers led by Trinity College Dublin have now demonstrated that a new form of light exists, where the angular momentum is only half of this value.

“What I think is so exciting about this result is that even this fundamental property of light, that physicists have always thought was fixed, can be changed,” said lead researcher Paul Eastham.

Let’s back up for a second here and explain what all that means. READ MORE…

Cover image by Matthewf01/Flicker

Going Beyond the Standard Model

“The Totally Unthinkable” –In 2016 CERN’s LHC Could Unveil Unknown Dimensions of the Universe – The Daily Galaxy –Great Discoveries Channel

Going beyond the Standard Model would “mean that there is yet another unbelievable idea out there. Something that is totally unthinkable,” said CERN senior physicist Paris Sphicas.  In 2016, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)  could unveil whole new dimensions, help explain dark matter and dark energy, of which we have no understanding but which together make up 95 percent of the universe.

Late last year, before CERN shut down its LHC for a technical break, two separate teams of scientists said they had discovered anomalies that could possibly hint at the existence of a mysterious new particle that could prove the existence of extra space-time dimensions, or explain the enigma of dark matter, scientists say.

The high-energy frontier has traditionally had one primary goal, to probe directly any uncharted physics waters. This has translated into the gigantic effort to complete the unobserved elements of the Standard Model of particle physics as well as to search for for signs of physics beyond.These measurements form a solid base from which searches for physics beyond the standard model have been launched. Since the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012, searches for supersymmetry and several signatures of possible new exotic physics phenomena have been developed, and new parameter space is being explored.


READ MORE HERE  (via Daily Galaxy)

Why the Universe Ended Up With Three Dimensions

New paper explains why the Universe ended up with three dimensions

It’s probably not news to you that as residents of this fine Universe we call home, we can only move left or right, up or down, backwards or forwards. That’s it. There aren’t any other possible directions that aren’t some combination of those three.

These are our Universe’s three spatial dimensions, and why we have exactly three of them (not just one or two, five or 80) is still something of a mystery.

Not that physicists haven’t been searching for an answer – explaining the fundamental nature of reality is just a really hard nut to crack. But a new paper has shown that a universe with our laws of thermodynamics (which describe how energy moves around) will always get stuck with exactly three spatial dimensions. So basically, this paper just explained the Universe.

The researchers, from the University of Salamanca in Spain and the National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico, explained it with the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

READ MORE (via Science Alert)  Image: andrey_l/ 

NASA Unveil Giant Golden Mirrors of the James Webb Space Telescope

When launched, Hubble’s successor, NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope, will be the most powerful space telescope in the world (or, outside of it?). Though it’s still under construction and is expected to launch in 2018, officials have just now unveiled pictures of the telescope’s huge, golden mirrors. And boy, are they pretty.

These large, blinged-out mirrors are too large to fit onto a rocket, which means they have to fold up and unfurl in space where they will help researchers focus light from extremely faraway sources, hopefully capturing stars that formed shortly after the Universe was born.  READ MORE ON SCIENCE ALERT

Image courtesy of NASA.